For instance, she shows how the New York press presented the Central Park jogger rape case as motivated by racism because of its unwillingness to consider rape an issue of gender. The first of these conditions is the most difficult to satisfy, as Church officials have been at pains to point out that Catholic priests are employees of individual dioceses. The other two elements of superior responsibility are likely to be more easily satisfied. Personal liability As well as meeting the elements of this definition, a court would also have to determine exactly how Benedict himself could be held liable for such acts. By analyzing the language of the original news stories and interviewing the original reporters, Benedict identifies the press's tendency to label victims as either virgins or vamps, a practice she condemns as misleading and harmful.
Nevertheless, Benedict had control over Church policy on sexual abuse both during his tenure as Pope and in his earlier role as head of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, the institution within the Catholic Church responsible for addressing sexual abuse and rape cases. Messenger Not a day goes by without further allegations of rape and sexual abuse being made against the Catholic Church. However, international law has developed the doctrine of superior responsibility to address the role of persons of authority for the conduct of their subordinates. More than a critique about the way the print press covers sex crimes, Virgin or Vamp also reveals the roots of rape coverage in the days of lynching, and shows how deep traditionalist views of women still run. Prosecuting a former head of state The status of the Holy See and the Vatican under international law is anomalous. Benedict will therefore be quite safe as long as he spends his retirement days within the confines of the Vatican. But which courts would hear the case? To the contrary, Benedict frustrated police attempts to stamp out abuse and set Church policy that required the perpetrators to be warned, rebuked, prayed for or shifted to other parishes but not handed over to law enforcement authorities. Basic notions of fairness and the strictures of human rights law require a defendant to be present at his or her trial. It is equally improbable for the Vatican to agree to extradite the Pontiff Emeritus. In Virgin or Vamp Benedict examines the press's treatment of four notorious sex crimes from the past decade--the Rideout marital rape trial in Oregon, the Big Dan's pool table gang rape in Massachusetts, the "Preppy Murder" in New York City, and the Central Park jogger case--and shows how victims are labelled either as virgins or vamps, a practice she condemns as misleading and harmful. A reasonable argument can be made that abuse perpetrated within the Catholic Church amounts to crimes against humanity. Benedict concludes with both practical and radical suggestions of how reporters can challenge such views by covering these increasingly common crimes without further harming the victims, the defendants, or public understanding. Thus, neither the Italian police nor the law enforcement authorities of any other state can enter the Vatican without consent of the Church authorities. On top of that, many countries including Australia have in place legislation that enables individuals to be prosecuted for the most serious international crimes regardless of their nationality and regardless of where the crime was committed. For example, she finds that the press worked so hard at portraying Jennifer Levin, the victim of the "Preppy Murder", as a man-chasing vamp that it made her seem as responsible for her death as was her killer, Robert Chambers. With each event came lurid stories pitting either a loose or a virginal woman against an unwilling or monstrous man. This has led to repeated calls for Benedict XVI to be held personally accountable for the grave harm inflicted on innumerable children. There appears to be no evidence to suggest that he was personally involved in the perpetration of any acts of abuse. With the rise in reported rapes, more such myth-mongering stories are bound to be seen in the future. In Virgin or Vamp, Benedict addresses the press's tendency to misrepresent rape, denigrate victims, and invade the privacy of its subjects, while also pointing out the press's critical role in informing and educating the public. International law recognises the authority of every state to prosecute offences that have been directed against its nationals. The first of these conditions is the most difficult to satisfy, as Church officials have been at pains to point out that Catholic priests are employees of individual dioceses. She also addresses our inherent language bias more positive words exist to describe men than women , the press's tendency to use sexually suggestive language to describe crime victims, and its preference for crimes against whites. International law accords complete immunity to heads of state from the jurisdiction of other states while they are in office. In her conclusion, Benedict analyzes the William Kennedy Smith rape case, and argues that the debate over naming victims is misconceived in light of the press's current lack of understanding about rape. Likewise, Benedict shows how the press depicted Greta Rideout as a hysterical wife who accused her husbandof rape for revenge, rather than as a victim of domestic battery who eventually escaped - the truth of the case.
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